We present a detailed study of charged-current quasielastic neutrino-nucleus scattering and of the influence of short-range correlations on one- and two-nucleon knockout processes. The short-range correlation formalism is implemented in the impulse approximation by shifting the complexity induced by the correlations from the wave functions to the operators. The model is validated by confronting (e,e′) cross section predictions with electron scattering data in the kinematic region here the quasielastic channel is expected to dominate. Further, the 12C(ν,μ−) cross sections relevant for neutrino-oscillation experiments are studied. Double differential 12C(ν,μ−) cross sections, accounting for short-range correlations in the one-particle emission channel and the two-particle two-hole channel, are presented for kinematics relevant for recent neutrino-nucleus scattering measurements.